Risk Management

Solar’s Risk Challenges

New solar power technology adds clean energy opportunities as well as daunting risk challenges.
By: | October 1, 2016 • 6 min read

Misaligned mirrors at Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System — the world’s largest solar plant — caused a fire in May that took one of the California facility’s three generators offline for several weeks.

Advertisement




Unlike the much more common photovoltaic (PV) solar installations, which directly convert sunlight into electricity, Ivanpah is a concentrated solar power (CSP) facility, using thousands of mirrors called heliostats to focus intense sunlight on concentrating towers, producing steam to generate electricity.

There are substantial differences between the risk profiles of PV and CSP, and the industry as a whole is dynamic enough that accurately assessing risk is an ongoing challenge.

While vast in size — Ivanpah takes up 3,500 acres — CSP generates more electricity per square foot than PV. And using heat storage technology, CSP can continue generating power after nightfall.

CSP’s drawbacks include multiple bottlenecks or choke points. Whereas PV generally has one point where power enters, CSP has concentrating towers, steam boilers and generators — each vulnerable to outages. CSP towers are also vulnerable to lightning strikes.

“With CSP, it’s such unique equipment. The equipment is going to range much more widely with CSP products versus photovoltaic,” said Sam Walsh, senior vice president, solar PV underwriting at GCube.

“It is important to know your supply chain, and be aware of the delays that can arise.”  — Christi Edwards, vice president, clean tech segment, Chubb

That can make replacing equipment a challenge, he said.

“It is important to know your supply chain, and be aware of the delays that can arise,” said Christi Edwards, vice president of the clean tech segment at Chubb.

Christi Edwards, vice president, clean tech segment, Chubb

Christi Edwards, vice president, clean tech segment, Chubb

While CSPs generate power into the night, Ivanpah is slow to start in the morning, requiring natural gas to preheat its boilers.

With moving parts prone to wear and tear, its thermal focus and reliance on combustibles, “CSP really isn’t solar,” said Michael J. Bernay, CEO of PERse, Ryan Specialty Group’s alternative energy group. “To date, pretty much everything that’s been built has been more of a thermal project than it has been a solar project.”

That impacts CSP’s risk profile. “PV is much closer to wind risk when it is modeled for exposure,” Bernay said. “CSP is much closer to a traditional gas-fired thermal project.”

“Photovoltaic is a lot more standard, a lot less moving parts and a lot less difficult to underwrite,” said Ara Agopian, president of SolarInsure, the renewable energy division of Asset One Insurance. “We definitely have a better handle on the photovoltaic side, especially on the large commercial installations.”

PV installations are generally large utility ground mount or distributed rooftop installations ranging from single homes to massive industrial facilities. Both benefit from how ubiquitous PV panels have become; if one breaks, it has little impact and is easily replaced.

Ground-mounted PV installations are more similar to CSP in size and in risks. Both can be hit by wind events — including tornados — as well as flash floods, which can wash out support structures, especially during construction.

“The liability in any solar panel is once they’re activated, they’re generating power” — James Biggins, managing consultant and power generation practice leader, Global Risk Consultants Corp.

Both are generally in remote locations, meaning no liability from adjacent structures, but firefighters and water can be far away. Automatic fire suppression — generally gaseous or water mist types — is extremely important.

Remote facilities also may be very lightly staffed, raising other risk and liability concerns, including trespassers or vandals.

R10-1-16p36-38_2Solar_RR.indd

James Biggins, managing consultant and power generation practice leader, Global Risk Consultants Corp.

With fewer moving parts to break and little in the way of lubricants or other combustibles, ground-mounted PV installations require even less staff, making security monitoring more important.

“There may be workers during the day doing maintenance, but [not] at night and many times during the day. … There are some PV sites where you’ve got the field of solar panels and the control building, but it’s all remotely operated from another facility,” said James Biggins, Chicago district managing consultant and power generation practice leader with Global Risk Consultants Corp. “There may well be nobody out there.”

Distributed PV solar rooftop installations are different. All PV produces electrical current, so there is always some fire risk.

“For rooftop installations, there is a risk to the structure underneath and there is risk to adjacent structures,” said Edwards.

Probable Maximum Loss

“With any rooftop installation, the entire system has to be viewed as your probable maximum loss, because if you lose the entire building, you’re losing the system with it,” Walsh said.

Advertisement




Rooftop installations can also hamper firefighting efforts.

“If the system isn’t de-energized, you would be dealing with an electrical fire scenario,” Walsh said. “So you don’t want to be pouring water on it. One of the concerns is how project owners and operators work together with local fire authorities to plan accordingly.”

“We have had situations where we’ve had a fire, and in the attempt to try to control it, the fire department has inadvertently made it worse,” Bernay said.

Not all fire departments are properly trained to deal with putting out a fire where there’s an energized solar system on the roof, he said.

“There have been instances where a fire department shows up, realizes it’s there and chooses not to fight the fire. … Even if the fire originated in the underlying structure, if the fire department won’t put it out because of the solar system, who’s going to be held responsible for the damage that occurs?” Walsh asked.

That’s why Edwards recommends inviting the local fire department to visit any installation and create a firefighting plan. She also recommends a thorough risk assessment, as well as knowing your state’s fire code — and building to the most stringent requirements available.

The National Electrical Code recommends rapid shutdown capability and disconnecting methods. The National Fire Protection Association’s 2015 fire code stipulates adequate spacing so firefighters can move about the roof and ventilate if need be.

Walsh recommends adequate signage on all sides of a building to alert fire crews to rooftop installations.

“It’s Live Power Up There”

“The liability in any solar panel is once they’re activated, they’re generating power. There’s always power being produced anytime there’s a light source,” said Biggins. “So from a worker safety standpoint … they’ve got to always remember it’s live power up there from those panels.”

“Hurricane Sandy is probably the largest event we’ve paid out losses for in regards to solar in the U.S.,” — Sam Walsh, senior vice president, solar PV underwriting, GCube.

While the decentralized nature of distributed solar installations dilutes the risk, events like hurricanes or seismic incidents can cause widespread losses, although Superstorm Sandy was in some ways encouraging.

“Hurricane Sandy is probably the largest event we’ve paid out losses for in regards to solar in the U.S.,” said GCube’s Walsh.  His company paid $7 million to $8 million in losses.

“But what was interesting was that we probably insured 100-plus projects in the area and I think we probably only paid out on six or seven projects in total,” he said.

Those losses were less from wind damage than from the corrosive effects of wind-driven salt water.

Snow piling up on PV installations can also cause damage. It can slide off angled panels, hit cars or people, or drip and cause icy spots, all serious liability issues.

Residential solar installations can be challenging to insure too. In some states, homeowner’s coverage for rooftop solar may be virtually unavailable. Leaseback arrangements where the installer retains ownership and responsibility for insurance can be an attractive option.

“It is important for consumers to be clear about who is responsible for the maintenance of the panels installed on their homes,” said Edwards. “For the operators, it is important to make sure the installer is experienced and reputable especially if they are using subcontractors.”

One potential complication for all solar installations is when errors during installation cause problems down the road, leading to disputes between the installer’s insurer and the operator’s insurer over the cost, timing and liability of the loss.

Advertisement




“The massive growth has really only taken place in the past six or so years,” Walsh said. “Once these systems enter year 10, are we going to start seeing issues crop up that will be pervasive across the industry?”

New technologies like large scale battery systems and insurance products like weather risk transfer products, which pay out for low sunlight or wind, will keep the changes coming.

“It’s a fairly new industry,” Agopian said.  “We don’t have enough data on the risk management side just yet. … But it’s increasing and improving. We’ll get better at it.” &

Jon McGoran is a novelist and magazine editor based outside of Philadelphia. He can be reached at [email protected]

More from Risk & Insurance

More from Risk & Insurance

2017 Risk All Stars

Immeasurable Value

The 2017 Risk All Stars strengthened their organizations by taking ownership of improved risk management processes and not quitting until they were in place.
By: | September 12, 2017 • 3 min read

Being the only person to hold a particular opinion or point of view within an organization cannot be easy. Do the following sound like familiar stories? Can you picture yourself or one of your risk management colleagues as the hero or heroine? Or better yet, as a Risk & Insurance® Risk All Star?

Advertisement




One risk manager took a job with a company that was being spun off, and the risk management program, which was built for a much larger company, was not a good fit for the spun-off company.
Rather than sink into inertia, this risk manager took the bull by the horns and began an aggressive company intranet campaign to instill better safety and other risk management practices throughout the organization.

The risk manager, 2017 Risk All Star Michelle Bennett of Cable One, also changed some long-standing brokerage relationships that weren’t a good fit for the risk management and insurance program. In her first year on the job she produced premium savings and in her second year is in the process of introducing ERM company-wide.

Or perhaps this one rings a bell. The news is trickling out that a company is poised to dramatically expand, increasing the workforce three- or four-fold. Having this knowledge with certainty would be a great benefit to a risk manager, who could begin girding safety, workers’ comp and related programs accordingly. But things sometimes don’t work that way, do they? Sometimes the risk manager is one of the last people to know.

The Risk All Star Award recognizes at its core, creativity, perseverance and passion. The 13 winners of this year’s award all displayed those traits in abundance.

In the case of 2017 Risk All Star winner Steve Richards of the Coca-Cola Bottling Company, the news of an expansion spurred him to action. He completely overhauled the company’s workers’ compensation program and streamlined its claim management system. The results, even with a much higher headcount, were reduced legal costs, better return-to-work experiences for injured workers and a host of other improvements and savings.

The Risk All Star Award recognizes at its core, creativity, perseverance and passion. The 13 winners of this year’s award all displayed those traits in abundance. Sometimes it took years for a particular risk solution, as promoted by a risk manager, to find acceptance.

In other cases a risk manager got so excited about a solution, they never even considered getting turned down. They just kept pushing until they carried the day.

Advertisement




Butler University’s Zach Finn became obsessive about what he felt was a lackluster effort on the part of the insurance industry to bring in new talent. The former risk manager for the J.M. Smucker Co. settled on the creation of a student-run captive to give his risk management students the experience they would need to get hired right out of college.

The result was a better risk management program for the university’s College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and immediate traction in the job market for Finn’s students.

A few of our Risk All Stars told us that the results they are achieving were decades in the making. Only by year-in, year-out dedication to gaining transparency about her co-op’s risks and learning more and more about her various insurance carriers, did Growmark Inc.’s Faith Cring create a stalwart risk management and insurance program that is the envy of the agricultural sector. Now she’s been with some of her insurance carriers more than 20 years — some more than 30 years.

Having the right idea and not having a home for it can be a lonely, frustrating experience. Having the creativity, the passion and perhaps, most importantly, the perseverance to see it through and get great results makes you a Risk All Star. &

_____________________________________________

Risk All Stars stand out from their peers by overcoming challenges through exceptional problem solving, creativity, perseverance and passion.

See the complete list of 2017 Risk All Stars.

Dan Reynolds is editor-in-chief of Risk & Insurance. He can be reached at [email protected]