Coverage Spotlight: Reputation Guard

Reputations are Fragile. A New Solution Helps Companies Protect and Restore Them.

The bottom line suffers when a viral story hurts a company’s brand. Mitigating the damage and recouping the loss requires planning ahead.
By: | June 1, 2018 • 5 min read

In the age of viral videos and around-the-clock reporting, news travels fast. For organizations whose business hinges on a positive brand image, any negative story can skewer that image in a matter of hours, whether it’s true or false. There is, after all, no jury in the court of public opinion.


Protecting a business from reputational damage takes a two-pronged approach: first, an organization must have a plan in place to launch a response to any negative event as quickly as possible. Second, it needs a way to measure and recoup income losses caused by a drop in consumers’ trust or approval. Many institutions struggle with both tactics.

Jeanmarie Giordano, Head of Professional Liability, AIG, and Kathryn Bannister, Professional Liability Product Manager, AIG, discuss how the risk has evolved, what makes it difficult to mitigate, and how a new solution helps insureds execute both prongs of their mitigation strategy.

R&I:: What’s driving reputation risk today?

Jeanmarie Giordano, Head of Professional Liability, AIG

Jeanmarie Giordano: Damage to reputation has been a concern of boards for years, and those concerns have not abated given the speed with which information can travel. With social media and a 24-hour news cycle, an incident can go viral incredibly quickly.

Corporate scandals and executive wrongdoing have always garnered negative press, but we live in an age where there are certain news outlets that are quick to publish stories whether they contain misinformation or not.

Traditional news outlets are still concerned with the need for accuracy, and stories still go through a lengthy vetting procedure when being published in traditional media. But there is no such vetting on social media. And unlike traditional media, the average Twitter or Facebook user is not obligated to issue a retraction if a story is proven false. Once it’s out there, the damage is already done.

That means companies have to respond incredibly quickly and get their side of the story out on the same channels. Knowing what to say and having that response coordinated and planned is the stumbling block for most companies.

R&I: Which types of companies are most at risk?


JG: Most of the headlines have centered around well-known, prominent people and organizations in a variety of sectors, but no one is immune. Middle-market firms as well as non-profits and educational institutions can be especially devastated by a reputation event because they may not have the resources to invest in working with a crisis management firm proactively.

Campus protests in recent years have reinvigorated this discussion. The student population in higher education is very social media-savvy. If they see something happening on campus, the first thing they’ll do is whip out their phones and capture it and share it.

At one university, campus protests were so impactful that the school experienced decreased enrollment the following year and had to lay off professors and close dorms. This shows how significantly a reputation event can impact revenue and lead to loss of income.

R&I: How can companies calculate the financial impact of a reputation event?

Kathryn Bannister, Professional Liability Product Manager, AIG

Kathryn Bannister: Quantifying reputation risk continues to be a challenge, which makes it hard for companies to prepare financially. Some carriers specify particular reputation events that trigger a policy, or they set complex thresholds for what is considered income loss. But reputation events are highly unpredictable, and such predefined conditions don’t allow for a lot of flexibility in the coverage.

AIG recently expanded its ReputationGuard® coverage to include income loss protection, under which we engage forensic accountants to calculate the income loss after the period of indemnity ends. This allows for a more accurate assessment of how an event actually impacted business. It depends on a variety of factors — industry, specific revenue streams, and external market factors.

A mishandled response to a crisis can generate more reputational damage and result in greater financial consequences than the incident itself, so it’s important to get out in front of reputation risk and mitigate the exposure proactively as much as possible.

R&I: What proactive steps can companies take to reduce their exposure?

KB: Establishing a clear response plan is critical. Companies are increasingly taking advantage of their carriers’ partnerships in order to manage risk in areas like property, cyber and employment practices; we think managing reputation risk should be no different and AIG provides access to communications, public relations and crisis management firms to create a plan before an event occurs.  A quick response is only possible when the groundwork has already been laid out.

JG: When a reporter knocks on your CEO’s door, will he know what to say or what not to say? Will you respond with a statement on social media or with a press release? What’s the timeframe for that response? Or should you do nothing at all? A communications expert can keep pulse of what’s being said and determine how best to respond, but companies have to know who to contact, when to reach out, and who will take charge of the response.

R&I: How effective are the reputation coverages currently available on the market?

JG: Insurance policies are reactive by nature. An event happens, the insured files a claim, the claim is adjusted, and then there’s a payout. That model doesn’t necessarily work for a fast-moving risk like reputation damage where time is of the essence. Without a market standard for assessing lost income, payout may vary depending on the carrier and may not be commensurate with the damage inflicted anyway.

R&I: What makes AIG’s ReputationGuard different?


JG: One of the most unique features of this product is that it’s triggered by the insured contacting one of the crisis management firms we partner with. They don’t have to come to us first, thereby eliminating down time between an incident surfacing and the insured getting the expert assistance they need to respond as quickly as possible to protect their reputation.

The coverage also emphasizes proactive preparation. It provides two free hours of assessment and consultation with one of our panel communications firms. Not only does that help the insured outline a preparedness plan, it also starts to build that relationship so if the company needs to reach out to the firm during a reputation event, it’s not the very first contact.

KB: We recently extended coverage to include income loss protection. Quantifying reputation risk is the challenge, and we’re recognizing that and providing for the fact that forensic accountants need to be involved both in the crafting of policy wording, and to examine what transpired after an event. We consulted with two external forensic accounting firms in developing the contract language and incorporated their considerations into the wording.

Because this risk is so hard to plan for, the coverage is meant to be broad, so it can respond to whatever crisis a company is facing. &

Katie Dwyer is an associate editor at Risk & Insurance®. She can be reached at [email protected]

Exclusive | Hank Greenberg on China Trade, Starr’s Rapid Growth and 100th, Spitzer, Schneiderman and More

In a robust and frank conversation, the insurance legend provides unique insights into global trade, his past battles and what the future holds for the industry and his company.
By: | October 12, 2018 • 12 min read

In 1960, Maurice “Hank” Greenberg was hired as a vice president of C.V. Starr & Co. At age 35, he had already accomplished a great deal.

He served his country as part of the Allied Forces that stormed the beaches at Normandy and liberated the Nazi death camps. He fought again during the Korean War, earning a Bronze Star. He held a law degree from New York Law School.


Now he was ready to make his mark on the business world.

Even C.V. Starr himself — who hired Mr. Greenberg and later hand-picked him as the successor to the company he founded in Shanghai in 1919 — could not have imagined what a mark it would be.

Mr. Greenberg began to build AIG as a Starr subsidiary, then in 1969, he took it public. The company would, at its peak, achieve a market cap of some $180 billion and cement its place as the largest insurance and financial services company in history.

This month, Mr. Greenberg travels to China to celebrate the 100th anniversary of C.V. Starr & Co. That visit occurs at a prickly time in U.S.-Sino relations, as the Trump administration levies tariffs on hundreds of billions of dollars in Chinese goods and China retaliates.

In September, Risk & Insurance® sat down with Mr. Greenberg in his Park Avenue office to hear his thoughts on the centennial of C.V. Starr, the dynamics of U.S. trade relationships with China and the future of the U.S. insurance industry as it faces the challenges of technology development and talent recruitment and retention, among many others. What follows is an edited transcript of that discussion.

R&I: One hundred years is quite an impressive milestone for any company. Celebrating the anniversary in China signifies the importance and longevity of that relationship. Can you tell us more about C.V. Starr’s history with China?

Hank Greenberg: We have a long history in China. I first went there in 1975. There was little there, but I had business throughout Asia, and I stopped there all the time. I’d stop there a couple of times a year and build relationships.

When I first started visiting China, there was only one state-owned insurance company there, PICC (the People’s Insurance Company of China); it was tiny at the time. We helped them to grow.

I also received the first foreign life insurance license in China, for AIA (The American International Assurance Co.). To date, there has been no other foreign life insurance company in China. It took me 20 years of hard work to get that license.

We also introduced an agency system in China. They had none. Their life company employees would get a salary whether they sold something or not. With the agency system of course you get paid a commission if you sell something. Once that agency system was installed, it went on to create more than a million jobs.

R&I: So Starr’s success has meant success for the Chinese insurance industry as well.

Hank Greenberg: That’s partly why we’re going to be celebrating that anniversary there next month. That celebration will occur alongside that of IBLAC (International Business Leaders’ Advisory Council), an international business advisory group that was put together when Zhu Rongji was the mayor of Shanghai [Zhu is since retired from public life]. He asked me to start that to attract foreign companies to invest in Shanghai.

“It turns out that it is harder [for China] to change, because they have one leader. My guess is that we’ll work it out sooner or later. Trump and Xi have to meet. That will result in some agreement that will get to them and they will have to finish the rest of the negotiations. I believe that will happen.” — Maurice “Hank” Greenberg, chairman and CEO, C.V. Starr & Co. Inc.

Shanghai and China in general were just coming out of the doldrums then; there was a lack of foreign investment. Zhu asked me to chair IBLAC and to help get it started, which I did. I served as chairman of that group for a couple of terms. I am still a part of that board, and it will be celebrating its 30th anniversary along with our 100th anniversary.


We have a good relationship with China, and we’re candid as you can tell from the op-ed I published in the Wall Street Journal. I’m told that my op-ed was received quite well in China, by both Chinese companies and foreign companies doing business there.

On August 29, Mr. Greenberg published an opinion piece in the WSJ reminding Chinese leaders of the productive history of U.S.-Sino relations and suggesting that Chinese leaders take pragmatic steps to ease trade tensions with the U.S.

R&I: What’s your outlook on current trade relations between the U.S. and China?

Hank Greenberg: As to the current environment, when you are in negotiations, every leader negotiates differently.

President Trump is negotiating based on his well-known approach. What’s different now is that President Xi (Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China) made himself the emperor. All the past presidents in China before the revolution had two terms. He’s there for life, which makes things much more difficult.

R&I: Sure does. You’ve got a one- or two-term president talking to somebody who can wait it out. It’s definitely unique.

Hank Greenberg: So, clearly a lot of change is going on in China. Some of it is good. But as I said in the op-ed, China needs to be treated like the second largest economy in the world, which it is. And it will be the number one economy in the world in not too many years. That means that you can’t use the same terms of trade that you did 25 or 30 years ago.

They want to have access to our market and other markets. Fine, but you have to have reciprocity, and they have not been very good at that.

R&I: What stands in the way of that happening?

Hank Greenberg: I think there are several substantial challenges. One, their structure makes it very difficult. They have a senior official, a regulator, who runs a division within the government for insurance. He keeps that job as long as he does what leadership wants him to do. He may not be sure what they want him to do.

For example, the president made a speech many months ago saying they are going to open up banking, insurance and a couple of additional sectors to foreign investment; nothing happened.

The reason was that the head of that division got changed. A new administrator came in who was not sure what the president wanted so he did nothing. Time went on and the international community said, “Wait a minute, you promised that you were going to do that and you didn’t do that.”

So the structure is such that it is very difficult. China can’t react as fast as it should. That will change, but it is going to take time.

R&I: That’s interesting, because during the financial crisis in 2008 there was talk that China, given their more centralized authority, could react more quickly, not less quickly.

Hank Greenberg: It turns out that it is harder to change, because they have one leader. My guess is that we’ll work it out sooner or later. Trump and Xi have to meet. That will result in some agreement that will get to them and they will have to finish the rest of the negotiations. I believe that will happen.

R&I: Obviously, you have a very unique perspective and experience in China. For American companies coming to China, what are some of the current challenges?


Hank Greenberg: Well, they very much want to do business in China. That’s due to the sheer size of the country, at 1.4 billion people. It’s a very big market and not just for insurance companies. It’s a whole range of companies that would like to have access to China as easily as Chinese companies have access to the United States. As I said previously, that has to be resolved.

It’s not going to be easy, because China has a history of not being treated well by other countries. The U.S. has been pretty good in that way. We haven’t taken advantage of China.

R&I: Your op-ed was very enlightening on that topic.

Hank Greenberg: President Xi wants to rebuild the “middle kingdom,” to what China was, a great country. Part of that was his takeover of the South China Sea rock islands during the Obama Administration; we did nothing. It’s a little late now to try and do something. They promised they would never militarize those islands. Then they did. That’s a real problem in Southern Asia. The other countries in that region are not happy about that.

R&I: One thing that has differentiated your company is that it is not a public company, and it is not a mutual company. We think you’re the only large insurance company with that structure at that scale. What advantages does that give you?

Hank Greenberg: Two things. First of all, we’re more than an insurance company. We have the traditional investment unit with the insurance company. Then we have a separate investment unit that we started, which is very successful. So we have a source of income that is diverse. We don’t have to underwrite business that is going to lose a lot of money. Not knowingly anyway.

R&I: And that’s because you are a private company?

Hank Greenberg: Yes. We attract a different type of person in a private company.

R&I: Do you think that enables you to react more quickly?

Hank Greenberg: Absolutely. When we left AIG there were three of us. Myself, Howie Smith and Ed Matthews. Howie used to run the internal financials and Ed Matthews was the investment guy coming out of Morgan Stanley when I was putting AIG together. We started with three people and now we have 3,500 and growing.

“I think technology can play a role in reducing operating expenses. In the last 70 years, you have seen the expense ratio of the industry rise, and I’m not sure the industry can afford a 35 percent expense ratio. But while technology can help, some additional fundamental changes will also be required.” — Maurice “Hank” Greenberg, chairman and CEO, C.V. Starr & Co. Inc.

R&I:  You being forced to leave AIG in 2005 really was an injustice, by the way. AIG wouldn’t have been in the position it was in 2008 if you had still been there.


Hank Greenberg: Absolutely not. We had all the right things in place. We met with the financial services division once a day every day to make sure they stuck to what they were supposed to do. Even Hank Paulson, the Secretary of Treasury, sat on the stand during my trial and said that if I’d been at the company, it would not have imploded the way it did.

R&I: And that fateful decision the AIG board made really affected the course of the country.

Hank Greenberg: So many people lost all of their net worth. The new management was taking on billions of dollars’ worth of risk with no collateral. They had decimated the internal risk management controls. And the government takeover of the company when the financial crisis blew up was grossly unfair.

From the time it went public, AIG’s value had increased from $300 million to $180 billion. Thanks to Eliot Spitzer, it’s now worth a fraction of that. His was a gross misuse of the Martin Act. It gives the Attorney General the power to investigate without probable cause and bring fraud charges without having to prove intent. Only in New York does the law grant the AG that much power.

R&I: It’s especially frustrating when you consider the quality of his own character, and the scandal he was involved in.

In early 2008, Spitzer was caught on a federal wiretap arranging a meeting with a prostitute at a Washington Hotel and resigned shortly thereafter.

Hank Greenberg: Yes. And it’s been successive. Look at Eric Schneiderman. He resigned earlier this year when it came out that he had abused several women. And this was after he came out so strongly against other men accused of the same thing. To me it demonstrates hypocrisy and abuse of power.

Schneiderman followed in Spitzer’s footsteps in leveraging the Martin Act against numerous corporations to generate multi-billion dollar settlements.

R&I: Starr, however, continues to thrive. You said you’re at 3,500 people and still growing. As you continue to expand, how do you deal with the challenge of attracting talent?

Hank Greenberg: We did something last week.

On September 16th, St. John’s University announced the largest gift in its 148-year history. The Starr Foundation donated $15 million to the school, establishing the Maurice R. Greenberg Leadership Initiative at St. John’s School of Risk Management, Insurance and Actuarial Science.

Hank Greenberg: We have recruited from St. John’s for many, many years. These are young people who want to be in the insurance industry. They don’t get into it by accident. They study to become proficient in this and we have recruited some very qualified individuals from that school. But we also recruit from many other universities. On the investment side, outside of the insurance industry, we also recruit from Wall Street.

R&I: We’re very interested in how you and other leaders in this industry view technology and how they’re going to use it.

Hank Greenberg: I think technology can play a role in reducing operating expenses. In the last 70 years, you have seen the expense ratio of the industry rise, and I’m not sure the industry can afford a 35 percent expense ratio. But while technology can help, some additional fundamental changes will also be required.

R&I: So as the pre-eminent leader of the insurance industry, what do you see in terms of where insurance is now and where it’s going?

Hank Greenberg: The country and the world will always need insurance. That doesn’t mean that what we have today is what we’re going to have 25 years from now.

How quickly the change comes and how far it will go will depend on individual companies and individual countries. Some will be more brave than others. But change will take place, there is no doubt about it.


More will go on in space, there is no question about that. We’re involved in it right now as an insurance company, and it will get broader.

One of the things you have to worry about is it’s now a nuclear world. It’s a more dangerous world. And again, we have to find some way to deal with that.

So, change is inevitable. You need people who can deal with change.

R&I:  Is there anything else, Mr. Greenberg, you want to comment on?

Hank Greenberg: I think I’ve covered it. &

The R&I Editorial Team can be reached at [email protected]