Risk Insider: Chris Johnson

Disaster Resilience Varies in Asia. Risk Managers Must Know the Difference or Suffer the Consequences

By: | August 9, 2018 • 4 min read
Chris Johnson is executive vice president at FM Global. He oversees operations outside of the Americas and AFM, a division that specializes in mid-market property insurance. In 2017, Johnson assumed legal responsibility for FM Global’s newly formed Luxembourg-headquartered subsidiary, FM Insurance Europe, S.A., which delivers coverage throughout the EU. He can be reached at [email protected]

As the Asia Pacific region continues to position itself as the world’s manufacturing hub, the riddle for risk managers is: “How do we adjust our mindset and expectations about risk management in one of the oldest parts of the world where the appreciation for risk can be vastly different from Western economies?”

According to the World Bank, Asia Pacific countries are responsible for two-fifths of global economic growth. Yet, at the same time, 70 percent of the world’s natural disasters happen in the region, including earthquakes, tsunamis and floods.

Still, despite the potential for severe disruption across business operations and global supply chains from a wide variety of factors, including political, economic and natural disasters, global companies continue to target the Asia Pacific region for expansion. The region presents a considerable opportunity to lower input costs and access potentially lucrative markets.

The result is a challenge for risk managers who struggle when seeking Western-style risk management in a region that includes culturally, politically and economically diverse countries. The list includes China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Singapore, Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Myanmar, the Philippines and more.

The Philippines is repeatedly hit with cyclones in the same places, and yet construction continues in these areas. Why do these practices continue? Why don’t these countries simply put strict building codes and standards in place to ensure property is well protected?

There are no uniform building codes or standards, and the appetite for risk mitigation varies by country.

In fact, the FM Global Resilience Index, which ranks nearly 130 countries according to the resilience of their business environments to disruption, shows a wide disparity among the ranking of countries in the Asia Pacific region. While Australia, Japan and New Zealand all rank highly for overall disaster resilience, others such as Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam are not as resilient.

In many of these countries natural hazard exposure is high, and manufacturing facilities and other key business operations continue to be built in areas more susceptible to wind and flood damage. Thailand, for example, has been hit with severe floods time after time, and yet the landscape stays much the same.

The Philippines is repeatedly hit with cyclones in the same places, and yet construction continues in these areas. Why do these practices continue? Why don’t these countries simply put strict building codes and standards in place to ensure property is well protected?

Culture Diversity Changes Risk Approach

To understand why some countries in the Asia Pacific region are more receptive to risk management than others, one must acknowledge that those attitudes, in large part, are drawn from the unique culture and experiences of each country. Some are communist, some have a Buddhist philosophy, some are wealthy; many are not.

Some cultures believe natural disasters are beyond their ability to prevent and are going to happen no matter what. In other cases, if a country has limited economic means and its people have a short life-span, one must understand they likely don’t have the wealth to undertake certain risk management measures commonplace in other parts of the world.

Yet risk managers can and have learned a great deal about risk management best practices from the region as well. Singapore, as an island nation, is entirely reliant on electric power generation to drive its world-leading financial center. It has some of the most advanced risk management programs in place to make sure the lights stay on.

Japan, with a long history of earthquakes, has some of the most rigorous programs in place to ensure its buildings can withstand the shaking of the earth. The Forbidden City in China developed some of the earliest fire protection programs known to man.

Finding Ways to Promote Disaster Resilience

So in a region with vastly different experiences, how can risk managers bridge the gap of disaster resilience?

First, given the disparate appetite for risk management in the Asia Pacific region, insurance and risk management professionals may need to help their business partners understand and visualize just how bad things can get (in an effort to change behavior) and how the majority of loss can be prevented.

That’s what my company is hoping to provide to visitors of the new Singapore-based learning center, the FM Global Centre, which is slated to open in 2019.

The Asia Pacific region is like a multicultural diamond. While some facets may be brighter than others, nonetheless it is a prized gem.

Secondly, especially in those cultures that believe disasters can’t be prevented, the risk management community has an opportunity to help the less informed understand the ramifications of a disaster, ways to mitigate the impact and the benefits of disaster resilience. Sometimes the ramifications of risk beyond one’s personal experience can be hard to imagine.

The bottom line is that these countries cannot be lumped together in terms of their proclivity or appetite for rigorous risk management programs that are more commonplace in the West.

The Asia Pacific region is like a multicultural diamond. While some facets may be brighter than others, nonetheless it is a prized gem. Like diamonds, no two are alike and each have different qualities that need to be considered.

More from Risk & Insurance

More from Risk & Insurance

High Net Worth

High Net Worth Clients Live in CAT Zones. Here’s What Their Resiliency Plan Should Include

Having a resiliency plan and practicing it can make all the difference in a disaster.
By: | September 14, 2018 • 7 min read

Packed with state-of-the-art electronics, priceless collections and high-end furnishings, and situated in scenic, often remote locations, the dwellings of high net worth individuals and families pose particular challenges when it comes to disaster resiliency. But help is on the way.

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Armed with loss data, innovative new programs, technological advances, and a growing army of niche service-providers aimed at addressing an astonishingly diverse set of risks, insurers are increasingly determined to not just insure against their high net worth clients’ losses, but to prevent them.

Insurers have long been proactive in risk mitigation, but increasingly, after the recent surge in wildfire and storm losses, insureds are now, too.

“Before, insurance was considered the only step in risk management. Now, our client families realize it is one of the many imperative steps in an effective risk management strategy,” said Laura Sherman, founding partner at Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners.

And especially in the high net worth space, preventing that loss is vastly preferable to a payout, for insurers and insureds alike.

“If insurers can preserve even one house that’s 10 or 20 or 40 million dollars … whatever they have spent in a year is money well spent. Plus they’ve saved this important asset for the client,” said Bruce Gendelman, chairman and founder Bruce Gendelman Insurance Services.

High Net Worth Vulnerabilities

Laura Sherman, founding partner, Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners

As the number and size of luxury homes built in vulnerable areas has increased, so has the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, including hurricanes, harsh cold and winter storms, and wildfires.

“There is a growing desire to inhabit this riskier terrain,” said Jason Metzger, SVP Risk Management, PURE group of insurance companies. “In the western states alone, a little over a million homes are highly vulnerable to wildfires because of their proximity to forests that are fuller of fuel than they have been in years past.”

Such homes are often filled with expensive artwork and collections, from fine wine to rare books to couture to automobiles, each presenting unique challenges. The homes themselves present other vulnerabilities.

“Larger, more sophisticated homes are bristling with more technology than ever,” said Stephen Poux, SVP and head of Risk Management Services and Loss Prevention for AIG’s Private Client Group.

“A lightning strike can trash every electronic in the home.”

Niche Service Providers

A variety of niche service providers are stepping forward to help.

Secure facilities provide hurricane-proof, wildfire-proof off-site storage for artwork, antiques, and all manner of collectibles for seasonal or rotating storage, as well as ahead of impending disasters.

Other companies help manage such collections — a substantial challenge anytime, but especially during a crisis.

“Knowing where it is, is a huge part of mitigating the risk,” said Eric Kahan, founder of Collector Systems, a cloud-based collection management company that allows collectors to monitor their collections during loans to museums, transit between homes, or evacuation to secure storage.

“Before, insurance was considered the only step in risk management. Now, our client families realize it is one of the many imperative steps in an effective risk management strategy.” — Laura Sherman, founding partner, Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners

Insurers also employ specialists in-house. AIG employs four art curators who advise clients on how to protect and preserve their art collections.

Perhaps the best known and most striking example of this kind of direct insurer involvement are the fire teams insurers retain or employ to monitor fires and even spray retardant or water on threatened properties.

High-Level Service for High Net Worth

All high net worth carriers have programs that leverage expertise, loss data, and relationships with vendors to help clients avoid and recover from losses, employing the highest levels of customer service to accomplish this as unobtrusively as possible.

“What allows you to do your job best is when you develop that relationship with a client, where it’s the same people that are interacting with them on every front for their risk management,” said Steve Bitterman, chief risk services officer for Vault Insurance.

Site visits are an essential first step, allowing insurers to assess risks, make recommendations to reduce them, and establish plans in the event of a disaster.

“When you’re in a catastrophic situation, it’s high stress, time is of the essence, and people forget things,” said Sherman. “Having a written plan in place is paramount to success.”

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Another important component is knowing who will execute that plan in homes that are often unoccupied.

Domestic staff may lack the knowledge or authority to protect the homeowner’s assets, and during a disaster may be distracted dealing with threats to their own homes and families. Adequate planning includes ensuring that whoever is responsible has the training and authority to execute the plan.

Evaluating New Technology

Insurers use technologies like GPS and satellite imagery to determine which homes are directly threatened by storms or wildfires. They also assess and vet technologies that can be implemented by homeowners, from impact glass to alarm and monitoring systems, to more obscure but potentially more important options.

AIG’s Poux recommends two types of vents that mitigate important, and unexpected risks.

“There’s a fantastic technology called Smart Vent, which allows water to flow in and out of the foundation,” Poux said. “… The weight of water outside a foundation can push a foundation wall in. If you equalize that water inside and out at the same level, you negate that.”

Another wildfire risk — embers getting sucked into the attic — is, according to Poux, “typically the greatest cause of the destruction of homes.” But, he said, “Special ember-resisting venting, like Brandguard Vents, can remove that exposure altogether.”

Building Smart

Many disaster resiliency technologies can be applied at any time, but often the cost is fractional if implemented during initial construction. AIG’s Smart Build is a free program for new or remodeled homes that evolved out of AIG’s construction insurance programs.

Previously available only to homes valued at $5 million and up, Smart Build recently expanded to include homes of $1 million and up. Roughly 100 homes are enrolled, with an average value of $13 million.

“In the high net worth space, sometimes it takes longer potentially to recover, simply because there are limited contractors available to do specialty work.” — Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting, Private Client Group, Ironshore

“We know what goes wrong in high net worth homes,” said Poux, citing AIG’s decades of loss data.

“We’re incenting our client and by proxy their builder, their architects and their broker, to give us a seat at the design table. … That enables us to help tweak the architectural plans in ways that are very easy to do with a pencil, as opposed to after a home is built.”

Poux cites a remote ranch property in Texas.

Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting, Private Client Group, Ironshore

“The client was rebuilding a home but also installing new roads and grading and driveways. … The property was very far from the fire department and there wasn’t any available water on the property.”

Poux’s team was able to recommend underground water storage tanks, something that would have been prohibitively expensive after construction.

“But if the ground is open and you’ve got heavy equipment, it’s a relatively minor additional expense.”

Homes that graduate from the Smart Build program may be eligible for preferred pricing due to their added resilience, Poux said.

Recovery from Loss

A major component of disaster resiliency is still recovery from loss, and preparation is key to the prompt service expected by homeowners paying six- or seven-figure premiums.

Before Irma, PURE sent contact information for pre-assigned claim adjusters to insureds in the storm’s direct path.

“In the high net worth space, sometimes it takes longer potentially to recover, simply because there are limited contractors available to do specialty work,” said Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting for Ironshore’s Private Client Group.

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“If you’ve got custom construction or imported materials in your house, you’re not going to go down the street and just find somebody that can do that kind of work, or has those materials in stock.”

In the wake of disaster, even basic services can be scarce.

“Our claims and risk management departments have to work together in advance of the storm,” said Bitterman, “to have contractors and restoration companies and tarp and board services that are going to respond to our company’s clients, that will commit resources to us.”

And while local agents’ connections can be invaluable, Goetsch sees insurers taking more of that responsibility from the agent, to at least get the claim started.

“When there is a disaster, the agency’s staff may have to deal with personal losses,” Goetsch said. &

Jon McGoran is a novelist and magazine editor based outside of Philadelphia. He can be reached at [email protected]