Environmental Risk

Lead in the Water: 6 Remediation Steps Schools Can Take Now

From choosing the right filter to developing a communication plan, there are ways schools can mitigate health and liability risks.
By: | August 30, 2018 • 3 min read

Since dangerous levels of lead were detected in the water supply in Flint in 2014, municipalities across the country have been under the microscope. People want to know whether their water is safe, or if local officials are committing the same oversights that lead to the crisis in Flint.


In Flint’s case, water utilities failed to treat water from the Flint River with anti-corrosive agents. As a result, the water wore away at the city’s service pipes and caused widespread leeching of lead. Levels that exceed the EPA’s action level of 15 parts per billion could cause serious health issues, including kidney and reproductive system damage in adults, and developmental problems in children.

Indeed, given that children are the population most vulnerable to lead poisoning, schools have faced some of the most intense scrutiny from concerned parents. To avoid dangerous public health impacts — and costly lawsuits — there are few steps schools can take to diminish the health risk and their own liability exposure:

1. Identify contamination sources.

Lead levels will not be consistent throughout an entire water supply or throughout a building. Corrosion may be worse in some spots more than others, and older faucets and water fountains can leech lead as well. Tests should be taken at every source of drinking water to determine where the exposure is worst and the need for remediation most immediate. To get an accurate reading, samples should be drawn in the morning after the water has sat overnight and before any pipes are flushed.

2. Add filters.

Once sources with elevated lead levels are identified, they can be fitted with carbon filters designed to trap lead particles. According to PlumbingSupply.com, filters should be certified to American National Standards Institute/National Science Foundation Standard 53. The NSF’s website states that Standard 53 filters “reduce a contaminant with a health effect. Health effects are set in this standard as regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Health Canada.”

Any contamination sources without filters should be made off-limits until one can be installed.

3. Conduct regular maintenance.

Set a maintenance schedule that includes regularly flushing the plumbing, replacing filters, retesting drinking sources, and ultimately, replacing fixtures with lead-free alternatives.

Set a maintenance schedule that includes regularly flushing the plumbing, replacing filters, retesting drinking sources, and ultimately, replacing fixtures with lead-free alternatives.

Flushing out the pipes will not eliminate lead and does not address the root of the problem, but it can get rid of accumulated lead and diminish the threat until longer-term solutions are implemented. Flushing the system is especially important after long breaks, like summer vacation, when water sits stagnant.

4. Replace fixtures.

Filters and flushing are ultimately stop-gap solutions. Replacement of taps and fountains with lead-free materials is the best way to remediate lead exposure short of replacing the entire plumbing system. For schools, PlumbingSupply.com recommends choosing products that have NSF-61-G or NSF-372 certification. This indicates that the material is lead-free and designed for high-use environments.

5. Choose environmentally-friendly contractors for repairs.

A buildup of microorganisms and organic and inorganic materials on pipes’ interiors – called a biofilm – provides a natural barrier between lead and the water rushing by it, slowing corrosion and leeching.


Renovations or plumbing repair work, however, can disrupt these films and actually exacerbate the problem. When hiring a plumber or contractor to replace fixtures, make sure to look for a Lead Safe Certified firm. The EPA offers a search function on its site to find certified service provider in your area.

6. Communicate early and often.

Even if a school takes all the above steps, it might find itself the target of a lawsuit brought by parents who feel like information was hidden from them or swept under the rug. Once the decision is made to conduct lead testing and an action plan developed, inform all stakeholders and keep the updated on progress. Detail how the lead will be remediated, and how you will ensure children’s drinking water is safe in the meantime. Communicating clearly and documenting all steps may be a school’s best protection in the face of a negligence claim.  &

Katie Dwyer is an associate editor at Risk & Insurance®. She can be reached at [email protected]

More from Risk & Insurance

More from Risk & Insurance

High Net Worth

High Net Worth Clients Live in CAT Zones. Here’s What Their Resiliency Plan Should Include

Having a resiliency plan and practicing it can make all the difference in a disaster.
By: | September 14, 2018 • 7 min read

Packed with state-of-the-art electronics, priceless collections and high-end furnishings, and situated in scenic, often remote locations, the dwellings of high net worth individuals and families pose particular challenges when it comes to disaster resiliency. But help is on the way.


Armed with loss data, innovative new programs, technological advances, and a growing army of niche service-providers aimed at addressing an astonishingly diverse set of risks, insurers are increasingly determined to not just insure against their high net worth clients’ losses, but to prevent them.

Insurers have long been proactive in risk mitigation, but increasingly, after the recent surge in wildfire and storm losses, insureds are now, too.

“Before, insurance was considered the only step in risk management. Now, our client families realize it is one of the many imperative steps in an effective risk management strategy,” said Laura Sherman, founding partner at Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners.

And especially in the high net worth space, preventing that loss is vastly preferable to a payout, for insurers and insureds alike.

“If insurers can preserve even one house that’s 10 or 20 or 40 million dollars … whatever they have spent in a year is money well spent. Plus they’ve saved this important asset for the client,” said Bruce Gendelman, chairman and founder Bruce Gendelman Insurance Services.

High Net Worth Vulnerabilities

Laura Sherman, founding partner, Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners

As the number and size of luxury homes built in vulnerable areas has increased, so has the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, including hurricanes, harsh cold and winter storms, and wildfires.

“There is a growing desire to inhabit this riskier terrain,” said Jason Metzger, SVP Risk Management, PURE group of insurance companies. “In the western states alone, a little over a million homes are highly vulnerable to wildfires because of their proximity to forests that are fuller of fuel than they have been in years past.”

Such homes are often filled with expensive artwork and collections, from fine wine to rare books to couture to automobiles, each presenting unique challenges. The homes themselves present other vulnerabilities.

“Larger, more sophisticated homes are bristling with more technology than ever,” said Stephen Poux, SVP and head of Risk Management Services and Loss Prevention for AIG’s Private Client Group.

“A lightning strike can trash every electronic in the home.”

Niche Service Providers

A variety of niche service providers are stepping forward to help.

Secure facilities provide hurricane-proof, wildfire-proof off-site storage for artwork, antiques, and all manner of collectibles for seasonal or rotating storage, as well as ahead of impending disasters.

Other companies help manage such collections — a substantial challenge anytime, but especially during a crisis.

“Knowing where it is, is a huge part of mitigating the risk,” said Eric Kahan, founder of Collector Systems, a cloud-based collection management company that allows collectors to monitor their collections during loans to museums, transit between homes, or evacuation to secure storage.

“Before, insurance was considered the only step in risk management. Now, our client families realize it is one of the many imperative steps in an effective risk management strategy.” — Laura Sherman, founding partner, Baldwin Krystyn Sherman Partners

Insurers also employ specialists in-house. AIG employs four art curators who advise clients on how to protect and preserve their art collections.

Perhaps the best known and most striking example of this kind of direct insurer involvement are the fire teams insurers retain or employ to monitor fires and even spray retardant or water on threatened properties.

High-Level Service for High Net Worth

All high net worth carriers have programs that leverage expertise, loss data, and relationships with vendors to help clients avoid and recover from losses, employing the highest levels of customer service to accomplish this as unobtrusively as possible.

“What allows you to do your job best is when you develop that relationship with a client, where it’s the same people that are interacting with them on every front for their risk management,” said Steve Bitterman, chief risk services officer for Vault Insurance.

Site visits are an essential first step, allowing insurers to assess risks, make recommendations to reduce them, and establish plans in the event of a disaster.

“When you’re in a catastrophic situation, it’s high stress, time is of the essence, and people forget things,” said Sherman. “Having a written plan in place is paramount to success.”


Another important component is knowing who will execute that plan in homes that are often unoccupied.

Domestic staff may lack the knowledge or authority to protect the homeowner’s assets, and during a disaster may be distracted dealing with threats to their own homes and families. Adequate planning includes ensuring that whoever is responsible has the training and authority to execute the plan.

Evaluating New Technology

Insurers use technologies like GPS and satellite imagery to determine which homes are directly threatened by storms or wildfires. They also assess and vet technologies that can be implemented by homeowners, from impact glass to alarm and monitoring systems, to more obscure but potentially more important options.

AIG’s Poux recommends two types of vents that mitigate important, and unexpected risks.

“There’s a fantastic technology called Smart Vent, which allows water to flow in and out of the foundation,” Poux said. “… The weight of water outside a foundation can push a foundation wall in. If you equalize that water inside and out at the same level, you negate that.”

Another wildfire risk — embers getting sucked into the attic — is, according to Poux, “typically the greatest cause of the destruction of homes.” But, he said, “Special ember-resisting venting, like Brandguard Vents, can remove that exposure altogether.”

Building Smart

Many disaster resiliency technologies can be applied at any time, but often the cost is fractional if implemented during initial construction. AIG’s Smart Build is a free program for new or remodeled homes that evolved out of AIG’s construction insurance programs.

Previously available only to homes valued at $5 million and up, Smart Build recently expanded to include homes of $1 million and up. Roughly 100 homes are enrolled, with an average value of $13 million.

“In the high net worth space, sometimes it takes longer potentially to recover, simply because there are limited contractors available to do specialty work.” — Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting, Private Client Group, Ironshore

“We know what goes wrong in high net worth homes,” said Poux, citing AIG’s decades of loss data.

“We’re incenting our client and by proxy their builder, their architects and their broker, to give us a seat at the design table. … That enables us to help tweak the architectural plans in ways that are very easy to do with a pencil, as opposed to after a home is built.”

Poux cites a remote ranch property in Texas.

Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting, Private Client Group, Ironshore

“The client was rebuilding a home but also installing new roads and grading and driveways. … The property was very far from the fire department and there wasn’t any available water on the property.”

Poux’s team was able to recommend underground water storage tanks, something that would have been prohibitively expensive after construction.

“But if the ground is open and you’ve got heavy equipment, it’s a relatively minor additional expense.”

Homes that graduate from the Smart Build program may be eligible for preferred pricing due to their added resilience, Poux said.

Recovery from Loss

A major component of disaster resiliency is still recovery from loss, and preparation is key to the prompt service expected by homeowners paying six- or seven-figure premiums.

Before Irma, PURE sent contact information for pre-assigned claim adjusters to insureds in the storm’s direct path.

“In the high net worth space, sometimes it takes longer potentially to recover, simply because there are limited contractors available to do specialty work,” said Curt Goetsch, head of underwriting for Ironshore’s Private Client Group.


“If you’ve got custom construction or imported materials in your house, you’re not going to go down the street and just find somebody that can do that kind of work, or has those materials in stock.”

In the wake of disaster, even basic services can be scarce.

“Our claims and risk management departments have to work together in advance of the storm,” said Bitterman, “to have contractors and restoration companies and tarp and board services that are going to respond to our company’s clients, that will commit resources to us.”

And while local agents’ connections can be invaluable, Goetsch sees insurers taking more of that responsibility from the agent, to at least get the claim started.

“When there is a disaster, the agency’s staff may have to deal with personal losses,” Goetsch said. &

Jon McGoran is a novelist and magazine editor based outside of Philadelphia. He can be reached at [email protected]