Is Construction Too Risky?

Have the construction slowdown and other issues increased exposures?
By: | November 1, 2013 • 4 min read

Point: Industry is Well Positioned to Manage Growth Safely

The construction industry is finally getting back to work.

Thanks to the recovery of the housing market, overall construction spending increased 2.2 percent in the second quarter of 2013, compared to the previous quarter, according to Carter Machinery’s Quarterly Construction Report. Total private residential construction spending increased 3.3 percent.


Anne Freedman, Senior Editor, Risk & Insurance®

The report noted the construction market is projected to grow 8 percent in 2014, due to “rapid” residential and nonresidential construction.

That’s good for the economy, the industry and the workers, but it also means risks will be increasing in this high-hazard field.

The industry is one of the most dangerous fields to work in, accounting for the highest number of fatal work injuries in any industry sector in 2012, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Fatal injuries increased 5 percent, while the total hours worked in the industry increased 1 percent last year.

We know from the performance of one of our 2013 Teddy Award winners that builders are looking at their workers in a much more progressive way, going so far in some cases as to refer to them as “industrial athletes.”

And more good news: Fatal construction injuries have decreased nearly 40 percent since 2006, which indicates risk managers and owners are more sophisticated, and workers are being better trained.

The contraction in the industry has given the owners and project managers time to review and revisit some exposures. One recent innovation is design/build, which puts designers and builders together from the very beginning of a project so there is much better coordination.

In addition, owner controlled “wrap-up” insurance, with one carrier is in greater use now on larger projects. That provides much easier administration and gives the owner more risk management control over subcontractors.

We know that builders are looking at their workers in a much more progressive way, providing them with stretching regimens to reduce injury.

Project owners and contractors are also retaining more risk than in the past, so they are much more sensitive to the need for safety and quality.

Many in the industry are also beginning to understand the need for safety training to be done in both English and Spanish. That has seen some results. Fatal work injuries declined 5 percent for Hispanic and Latino workers in 2012. The natural process of contraction and rebalancing has resulted in an industry that is well positioned to manage the anticipated growth.

Counterpoint: Construction Risk is Getting Harder to Manage

A superficial reading of the finance pages shows a domestic construction industry that is making a tentative comeback. But underneath those hopeful reports lurks a darker truth, the industry is not in a good position to manage risk as business activity increases.


Dan Reynolds, Editor-in-Chief, Risk & Insurance®

To gain perspective, understand that the industry saw tens of billions of dollars of opportunity evaporate during the downturn. One major carrier told us that contractors that once needed to bid eight to 10 jobs to land one are now bidding 30 to 40 to get work.

Price cutting is rampant and contractors are working on much thinner margins. That inevitably means safety corners are being cut.

In addition, the burgeoning urban lifestyle developments in sunbelt states are being built using wood framing rather than metal infrastructure. Why? Because from a labor and materials perspective, wood framing is cheaper to build with than metal. That’s a readily apparent indication of the way the industry is cutting costs. What worries us are the cost-cutting initiatives that are not as visible.

Another factor adding to risk exposures is the loss of experienced talent from the construction industry when the bottom fell out of it in 2008. That means companies that used to pay three people to manage safety are now paying one person — a less experienced person — to do the same work. And the workers themselves are less experienced and have less ingrained knowledge of safe behaviors.

Proof of this shortcoming is showing up in the data. An August report detailed that fatalities in the industry are ticking back up, to as many as 775 reported construction fatalities in 2012.

From a safety perspective, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics ranks construction laborer as the 10th riskiest job in the country. The risk management ranks of the industry were decimated by the economic downturn. Couple that with the fact that it is using cheaper labor to perform the same risky tasks. That is not a good combination.

In some areas of the country, particularly New York, standard market carriers have pulled back from construction risks in droves due to liberal interpretations of labor laws that are allowing workers to sue employers outside of workers’ compensation’s exclusive remedy.

That’s another visible indication that construction risks are getting harder to manage.


Editor’s note: The opinions stated in the Zurich Point of Action are provided for informational purposes only and are solely those of Zurich in North America.
The Zurich Point of Action opinions are not legal advice and Zurich assumes no liability concerning the information above. The Point and Counterpoint opinions are those of Risk & Insurance® and are completely independent of Zurich.

Anne Freedman is managing editor of Risk & Insurance. She can be reached at [email protected]

More from Risk & Insurance

More from Risk & Insurance


Insurers Take to the Skies

This year’s hurricane season sees the use of drones and other aerial intelligence gathering systems as insurers seek to estimate claims costs.
By: | November 1, 2017 • 6 min read

For Southern communities, current recovery efforts in the wake of Hurricane Harvey will recall the painful devastation of 2005, when Katrina and Wilma struck. But those who look skyward will notice one conspicuous difference this time around: drones.


Much has changed since Katrina and Wilma, both economically and technologically. The insurance industry evolved as well. Drones and other visual intelligence systems (VIS) are set to play an increasing role in loss assessment, claims handling and underwriting.

Farmers Insurance, which announced in August it launched a fleet of drones to enhance weather-related property damage claim assessment, confirmed it deployed its fleet in the aftermath of Harvey.

“The pent-up demand for drones, particularly from a claims-processing standpoint, has been accumulating for almost two years now,” said George Mathew, CEO of Kespry, Farmers’ drone and aerial intelligence platform provider partner.

“The current wind and hail damage season that we are entering is when many of the insurance carriers are switching from proof of concept work to full production rollout.”

 According to Mathew, Farmers’ fleet focused on wind damage in and around Corpus Christi, Texas, at the time of this writing. “Additional work is already underway in the greater Houston area and will expand in the coming weeks and months,” he added.

No doubt other carriers have fleets in the air. AIG, for example, occupied the forefront of VIS since winning its drone operation license in 2015. It deployed drones to inspections sites in the U.S. and abroad, including stadiums, hotels, office buildings, private homes, construction sites and energy plants.

Claims Response

At present, insurers are primarily using VIS for CAT loss assessment. After a catastrophe, access is often prohibited or impossible. Drones allow access for assessing damage over potentially vast areas in a more cost-effective and time-sensitive manner than sending human inspectors with clipboards and cameras.

“Drones improve risk analysis by providing a more efficient alternative to capturing aerial photos from a sky-view. They allow insurers to rapidly assess the scope of damages and provide access that may not otherwise be available,” explained Chris Luck, national practice leader of Advocacy at JLT Specialty USA.

“The pent-up demand for drones, particularly from a claims-processing standpoint, has been accumulating for almost two years now.” — George Mathew, CEO, Kespry

“In our experience, competitive advantage is gained mostly by claims departments and third-party administrators. Having the capability to provide exact measurements and details from photos taken by drones allows insurers to expedite the claim processing time,” he added.

Indeed, as tech becomes more disruptive, insurers will increasingly seek to take advantage of VIS technologies to help them provide faster, more accurate and more efficient insurance solutions.

Duncan Ellis, U.S. property practice leader, Marsh

One way Farmers is differentiating its drone program is by employing its own FAA-licensed drone operators, who are also Farmers-trained claim representatives.

Keith Daly, E.V.P. and chief claims officer for Farmers Insurance, said when launching the program that this sets Farmers apart from most carriers, who typically engage third-party drone pilots to conduct evaluations.

“In the end, it’s all about the experience for the policyholder who has their claim adjudicated in the most expeditious manner possible,” said Mathew.

“The technology should simply work and just melt away into the background. That’s why we don’t just focus on building an industrial-grade drone, but a complete aerial intelligence platform for — in this case — claims management.”

Insurance Applications

Duncan Ellis, U.S. property practice leader at Marsh, believes that, while currently employed primarily to assess catastrophic damage, VIS will increasingly be employed to inspect standard property damage claims.

However, he admitted that at this stage they are better at identifying binary factors such as the area affected by a peril rather than complex assessments, since VIS cannot look inside structures nor assess their structural integrity.

“If a chemical plant suffers an explosion, it might be difficult to say whether the plant is fully or partially out of operation, for example, which would affect a business interruption claim dramatically.


“But for simpler assessments, such as identifying how many houses or industrial units have been destroyed by a tornado, or how many rental cars in a lot have suffered hail damage from a storm, a VIS drone could do this easily, and the insurer can calculate its estimated losses from there,” he said.

In addition,VIS possess powerful applications for pre-loss risk assessment and underwriting. The high-end drones used by insurers can capture not just visual images, but mapping heat, moisture or 3D topography, among other variables.

This has clear applications in the assessment and completion of claims, but also in potentially mitigating risk before an event happens, and pricing insurance accordingly.

“VIS and drones will play an increasing underwriting support role as they can help underwriters get a better idea of the risk — a picture tells a thousand words and is so much better than a report,” said Ellis.

VIS images allow underwriters to see risks in real time, and to visually spot risk factors that could get overlooked using traditional checks or even mature visual technologies like satellites. For example, VIS could map thermal hotspots that could signal danger or poor maintenance at a chemical plant.

Chris Luck, national practice leader of Advocacy, JLT Specialty USA

“Risk and underwriting are very natural adjacencies, especially when high risk/high value policies are being underwritten,” said Mathew.

“We are in a transformational moment in insurance where claims processing, risk management and underwriting can be reimagined with entirely new sources of data. The drone just happens to be one of most compelling of those sources.”

Ellis added that drones also could be employed to monitor supplies in the marine, agriculture or oil sectors, for example, to ensure shipments, inventories and supply chains are running uninterrupted.

“However, we’re still mainly seeing insurers using VIS drones for loss assessment and estimates, and it’s not even clear how extensively they are using drones for that purpose at this point,” he noted.

“Insurers are experimenting with this technology, but given that some of the laws around drone use are still developing and restrictions are often placed on using drones [after] a CAT event, the extent to which VIS is being used is not made overly public.”

Drone inspections could raise liability risks of their own, particularly if undertaken in busy spaces in which they could cause human injury.

Privacy issues also are a potential stumbling block, so insurers are dipping their toes into the water carefully.

Risk Improvement

There is no doubt, however, that VIS use will increase among insurers.


“Although our clients do not have tremendous experience utilizing drones, this technology is beneficial in many ways, from providing security monitoring of their perimeter to loss control inspections of areas that would otherwise require more costly inspections using heavy equipment or climbers,” said Luck.

In other words, drones could help insurance buyers spot weaknesses, mitigate risk and ultimately win more favorable coverage from their insurers.

“Some risks will see pricing and coverage improvements because the information and data provided by drones will put underwriters at ease and reduce uncertainty,” said Ellis.

The flip-side, he noted, is that there will be fewer places to hide for companies with poor risk management that may have been benefiting from underwriters not being able to access the full picture.

Either way, drones will increasingly help insurers differentiate good risks from bad. In time, they may also help insurance buyers differentiate between carriers, too. &

Antony Ireland is a London-based financial journalist. He can be reached at [email protected]