The Risks of Sitting

Desk Job Dangers

Programs to decrease prolonged sitting during the day could reduce workers' comp claims.
By: | January 27, 2014 • 6 min read

When we think about dangerous working conditions and risk management, our thoughts are most likely drawn to construction sites, asbestos removal, dealing with nuclear waste, or fishing in the Bering Sea. For the owners of companies and corporations that do this kind of work, managing the risk inherent in the job is essential to having a successful and profitable business.

But the majority of Americans do not work in those traditionally dangerous jobs. In fact, 86 percent of all Americans today work in some type of office setting, where they sit at a desk for up to 40 hours a week.

People in these jobs typically feel very safe at work. If you asked them the most dangerous or hazardous part of their day, they would probably say their commute to work — not something that happens within the safe four walls of their office. However, over the last few years, research has shown us that simply sitting at a desk is one of the most hazardous things a person can do to his or her body.

As a chiropractor, I have seen firsthand the ravaging effects prolonged sitting has on people’s bodies. The majority of my patients today are suffering from some form of a repetitive strain injury. Most of the neck, back, and wrist pain we see in this country today is likely a result of prolonged sitting.

Advertisement




We know that musculoskeletal strains are the No. 1 and fastest growing class of workers’ compensation injury, and that is despite the fact that the numbers are still widely underreported. The true impact that a sedentary work style has on our bodies and our bottom line has yet to be seen.

But they are ways to mitigate the risks associated with what used to be thought of as sunny desk jobs.

What Happens to My Body When I Sit?

Repetitive Strain Injuries, or RSIs, occur when the body suffers repeated micro-traumas due to undue force or strain on the musculoskeletal system. Sitting for too long with poor posture is the most common cause. And unfortunately, treatment for RSIs is complicated for several reasons:

• Those affected do not always know the source of their pain, and diagnosis can take months or even years. This causes escalating expense and time lost from work.

• Once an injury is treated, the worker often goes right back to the behavior that created the injury in the first place.

• These injuries take years to develop, and often years to rehabilitate.

Because the number of RSIs of the neck and back are underreported, I often tell employers to look at the number of carpal tunnel claims they have. If that number is high, it is very likely that their workers are also suffering from an assortment of other injuries as well.

Another risk for employees who sit for long hours each week is deconditioning syndrome — even when the worker’s posture is perfect and ergonomic devices are being used.

Bodies are made to move. And without movement, the musculoskeletal system gets weak and stiff. The danger of deconditioning syndrome is that an unfit body is more likely to be injured doing a simple task such as gardening or playing tennis.

If your company has a large number of lower back pain/injury claims in your workers’ compensation or disability funnel, deconditioning syndrome may be to blame.  Not only does this condition make it much more likely for an employee to suffer an injury, but it also makes rehabilitation of that injury a much longer more arduous process. A healthy and fit body heals much quicker.

Obesity and chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer, are also associated with prolonged sitting. Not only are these diseases dangerous and costly in their own right, but those who are chronically sick have a much harder time recovering from injuries. Obese people in particular are more likely to be injured and to lose more time from work once an injury occurs.

The costs of injuries and diseases related to long hours sitting are difficult to quantify. Some reports have calculated the cost at billions of dollars a year in workers’ compensation and disability claims, but that number is only a portion of the full amount companies are spending on injured office employees.

Like other jobs that have an inherent risk for their workers, steps must be taken to protect office workers from the dangers of their jobs and corporations from footing the bill.

What Do We Do About It?

Just like a construction company gives out hard hats to their workers, or a doctor wears latex gloves, there are simple things we can offer employers to keep their employees safe from the dangers of prolonged sitting.

Advertisement




Managing the risks associated with prolonged sitting has two necessary elements: education and prevention.

One of the biggest problems associated with prolonged sitting injuries is their misdiagnosis. Once a person is afflicted with a repetitive strain injury, a company can cut down on the costs associated with treatment if a proper diagnosis is reached quickly.

Often injured workers submit to unnecessary and expensive diagnostic testing like MRI, X-ray, and EMGs, and are prescribed a myriad of medications, including heavy duty pain killers.

If a worker is suffering from an RSI, they should seek help from a chiropractor, masseuse, or physical therapist, along with seeing their primary care physician for short term anti-inflammatory therapy.

To prevent injuries, employers must consider ways to reduce exposure to the risk. Quite simply, have them sit less. There are many options for employers today, including ergonomic devices, standing desks, other alternative workstations, and my personal recommendation, a micro-break system.

Micro-break systems get people moving once an hour, reducing their sitting time while increasing their overall productivity and energy levels. Implementing one of these systems reduces your exposure to the risk of prolonged sitting for years to come.

For many years now, employers have been trying to mitigate the costs associated with sedentary workers through wellness programs, but nearly all such programs look to individual behaviors as the cause of these conditions.

Recognizing that many injuries and illnesses afflicting workers today are a result of the job itself offers employers an opportunity to apply a risk management model to reducing health care costs. Such a model may be more successful at creating a lasting change because they change the job, not the person doing it.

The timing couldn’t be better. With the constant rise in health care costs, the crippling number of Americans addicted to prescription pain killers, and the growing burden on employers to create healthier work environments, employers need to enact change and gain control over rising costs.

Addressing the hazards of the modern American workplace — where the very chair employees sit in poses significant long-term health risks — is a win-win for everyone.

Gregory Soltanoff, D.C., is a musculoskeletal and workplace injury specialist and creator of Voom, a micro-break corporate wellness program. He can be reached at [email protected]

Emerging Risks

Stadium Safety

Soft targets, such as sports stadiums, must increase measures to protect lives and their business.
By: | January 10, 2018 • 8 min read

Acts of violence and terror can break out in even the unlikeliest of places.

Look at the 2013 Boston Marathon, where two bombs went off, killing three and injuring dozens of others in a terrorist attack. Or consider the Orlando Pulse nightclub, where 49 people were killed and 58 wounded. Most recently in Las Vegas, a gunman killed 58 and injured hundreds of others.

Advertisement




The world is not inherently evil, but these evil acts still find a way into places like churches, schools, concerts and stadiums.

“We didn’t see these kinds of attacks 20 years ago,” said Glenn Chavious, managing director, global sports & recreation practice leader, Industria Risk & Insurance Services.

As a society, we have advanced through technology, he said. Technology’s platform has enabled the message of terror to spread further faster.

“But it’s not just with technology. Our cultures, our personal grievances, have brought people out of their comfort zones.”

Chavious said that people still had these grievances 20 years ago but were less likely to act out. Tech has linked people around the globe to other like-minded individuals, allowing for others to join in on messages of terror.

“The progression of terrorist acts over the last 10 years has very much been central to the emergence of ‘lone wolf’ actors. As was the case in both Manchester and Las Vegas, the ‘lone wolf’ dynamic presents an altogether unique set of challenges for law enforcement and event service professionals,” said John

Glenn Chavious, managing director, global sports & recreation practice leader, Industria Risk & Insurance Services

Tomlinson, senior vice president, head of entertainment, Lockton.

As more violent outbreaks take place in public spaces, risk managers learn from and better understand what attackers want. Each new event enables risk managers to see what works and what can be improved upon to better protect people and places.

But the fact remains that the nature and pattern of attacks are changing.

“Many of these actions are devised in complete obscurity and on impulse, and are carried out by individuals with little to no prior visibility, in terms of behavioral patterns or threat recognition, thus making it virtually impossible to maintain any elements of anticipation by security officials,” said Tomlinson.

With vehicles driving into crowds, active shooters and the random nature of attacks, it’s hard to gauge what might come next, said Warren Harper, global sports & events practice leader, Marsh.

Public spaces like sporting arenas are particularly vulnerable because they are considered ‘soft targets.’ They are areas where people gather in large numbers for recreation. They are welcoming to their patrons and visitors, much like a hospital, and the crowds that attend come in droves.

NFL football stadiums, for example, can hold anywhere from 25,000 to 93,000 people at maximum capacity — and that number doesn’t include workers, players or other behind-the-scenes personnel.

“Attacks are a big risk management issue,” said Chavious. “Insurance is the last resort we want to rely upon. We’d rather be preventing it to avoid such events.”

Preparing for Danger

The second half of 2017 proved a trying few months for the insurance industry, facing hurricanes, earthquakes, wildfires and — unfortunately — multiple mass shootings.

The industry was estimated to take a more than $1 billion hit from the Las Vegas massacre in October 2017. A few years back, the Boston Marathon bombings cost businesses around $333 million each day the city was shut down following the attack. Officials were on a manhunt for the suspects in question, and Boston was on lockdown.

“Many of these actions are devised in complete obscurity and on impulse, and are carried out by individuals with little to no prior visibility.” — John Tomlinson, senior vice president, head of entertainment, Lockton

“Fortunately, we have not had a complete stadium go down,” said Harper. But a mass casualty event at a stadium can lead to the death or injury of athletes, spectators and guests; psychological trauma; potential workers’ comp claims from injured employees; lawsuits; significant reputational damage; property damage and prolonged business interruption losses.

The physical damage, said Harper, might be something risk managers can gauge beforehand, but loss of life is immeasurable.

Advertisement




The best practice then, said Chavious, is awareness and education.

“A lot of preparedness comes from education. [Stadiums] need a risk management plan.”

First and foremost, Chavious said, stadiums need to perform a security risk assessment. Find out where vulnerable spots are, decide where education can be improved upon and develop other safety measures over time.

Areas outside the stadium are soft targets, said Harper. The parking lot, the ticketing and access areas and even the metro transit areas where guests mingle before and after a game are targeted more often than inside.

Last year, for example, a stadium in Manchester was the target of a bomb, which detonated outside the venue as concert-goers left. In 2015, the Stade de France in Paris was the target of suicide bombers and active shooters, who struck the outside of the stadium while a soccer match was held inside.

Security, therefore, needs to be ready to react both inside and outside the vicinity. Reviewing past events and seeing what works has helped risk mangers improve safety strategies.

“A lot of places are getting into table-top exercises” to make sure their people are really trained, added Harper.

In these exercises, employees from various departments come together to brainstorm and work through a hypothetical terrorist situation.

A facilitator will propose the scenario — an active shooter has been spotted right before the game begins, someone has called in a bomb threat, a driver has fled on foot after driving into a crowd — and the stadium’s staff is asked how they should respond.

“People tend to act on assumptions, which may be wrong, but this is a great setting for them to brainstorm and learn,” said Harper.

Technology and Safety

In addition to education, stadiums are ahead of the game, implementing high-tech security cameras and closed-circuit TV monitoring, requiring game-day audiences to use clear/see-through bags when entering the arena, upping employee training on safety protocols and utilizing vapor wake dogs.

Drones are also adding a protective layer.

John Tomlinson, senior vice president, head of entertainment, Lockton

“Drones are helpful in surveying an area and can alert security to any potential threat,” said Chavious.

“Many stadiums have an area between a city’s metro and the stadium itself. If there’s a disturbance there, and you don’t have a camera in that area, you could use the drone instead of moving physical assets.”

Chavious added that “the overhead view will pick up potential crowd concentration, see if there are too many people in one crowd, or drones can fly overhead and be used to assess situations like a vehicle that’s in a place it shouldn’t be.”

But like with all new technology, drones too have their downsides. There’s the expense of owning, maintaining and operating the drone. Weather conditions can affect how and when a drone is used, so it isn’t a reliable source. And what if that drone gets hacked?

“The evolution of venue security protocols most certainly includes the increased usage of unmanned aerial systems (UAS), including drones, as the scope and territorial vastness provided by UAS, from a monitoring perspective, is much more expansive than ground-based apparatus,” said Tomlinson.

“That said,” he continued, “there have been many documented instances in which the intrusion of unauthorized drones at live events have posed major security concerns and have actually heightened the risk of injury to participants and attendees.”

Still, many experts, including Tomlinson, see drones playing a significant role in safety at stadiums moving forward.

“I believe the utilization of drones will continue to be on the forefront of risk mitigation innovation in the live event space, albeit with some very tight operating controls,” he said.

The SAFETY Act

In response to the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, U.S. Homeland Security enacted the Support Anti-Terrorism by Fostering Effective

Warren Harper, global sports & events practice leader, Marsh

Technologies Act (SAFETY Act).

The primary purpose of the SAFETY Act was to encourage potential manufacturers or sellers of anti-terrorism technologies to continue to develop and commercialize these technologies (like video monitoring or drones).

There was a worry that the threat of liability in such an event would deter and prevent sellers from pursing these technologies, which are aimed at saving lives. Instead, the SAFETY Act provides incentive by adding a system of risk and litigation management.

“[The SAFETY Act] is geared toward claims arising out of acts of terrorism,” said Harper.

Bottom line: It’s added financial protection. Businesses both large and small can apply for the SAFETY designation — in fact, many NFL teams push for the designation. So far, four have reached SAFETY certification: Lambeau Field, MetLife Stadium, University of Phoenix Stadium and Gillette Stadium.

Advertisement




To become certified, reviewers with the SAFETY Act assess stadiums for their compliance with the most up-to-date terrorism products. They look at their built-in emergency response plans, cyber security measures, hiring and training of employees, among other criteria.

The process can take over a year, but once certified, stadiums benefit because liability for an event is lessened. One thing to remember, however, is that the added SAFETY Act protection only holds weight when a catastrophic event is classified as an act of terrorism.

“Generally speaking, I think the SAFETY Act has been instrumental in paving the way for an accelerated development of anti-terrorism products and services,” said Tomlinson.

“The benefit of gaining elements of impunity from third-party liability related matters has served as a catalyst for developers to continue to push the envelope, so to speak, in terms of ideas and innovation.”

So while attackers are changing their methods and trying to stay ahead of safety protocols at stadiums, the SAFETY Act, as well as risk managers and stadium owners, keep stadiums investing in newer, more secure safety measures. &

Autumn Heisler is a staff writer at Risk & Insurance. She can be reached at [email protected]