Education

Schools Face Increasing Violence

Physical contact between students and teachers in one Minnesota school district tripled over the past five years.
By: | December 5, 2016 • 4 min read

Eight of 10 teachers nationwide report being victimized by students at least once in a school year.

The U.S. Department of Education said it’s a national crisis with both obvious and hidden costs for teachers and districts. In a July 2015 report addressing teacher victimization by students, (i.e., harassment, theft, property damage and physical attacks) the department cited more than $2 billion lost annually and lost work days approaching one million.

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Bill Mayo, executive director, New Jersey Schools Insurance Group, is not surprised.

“We have incurred costs of more than $50 million in wage replacement and direct medical care over the last 10 years for workers’ compensation costs in categories of assaults on teachers,” he said. “And that doesn’t include soft costs like replacement teacher training over time.”

Bill Mayo, executive director, New Jersey Schools Insurance Group

Bill Mayo, executive director, New Jersey Schools Insurance Group

Mayo’s group operates a joint insurance fund on behalf of 400 school districts and the teachers’ collective bargaining units.

“We see injuries occurring from teachers breaking up an altercation between students, which is the second most frequent type of an injury,” he said. The most frequent stems from acting out by students with special education needs.

“The smallest category, probably representing about 5 percent or less, involves a direct attack on a teacher outside of a special ed environment.”

That’s not a large percentage and certainly is in accord with the Department of Education’s statistics, but extrapolate that 5 percent of student assaults to the 3.1 million teachers working in the U.S., and it equals more than 150,000 teachers reporting some form of physical assault this year.

And those would be only the ones actually reporting an incident.

Legislative Action

Someone surprised by the numbers is Mark French, president of the Minnesota Elementary School Principals’ Association and co-chair of the Student Behavior Workgroup created by the Minnesota legislature last year.

The group’s creation followed media reports of increased violence against teachers.

“While it does surprise me,” said French, “I can see why it might happen because schools are having to work with students who are coming [to school] with more home, family, community and society health issues.”

At Minnesota’s largest school district, Anoka-Hennepin, physical contact involving teachers and students tripled between 2010 and 2015, while the rate of student-related workers’ compensation claims at Minneapolis schools climbed from four incidents for every 1,000 students in 2010-2011 to seven in 2015-2016.

As a result, French and other school principals in Minnesota are interested in not only suspending or expelling aggressive students but in “what we can do up-front through programming like social and emotional learning, restorative justice and practices.”

French also acknowledged the enormous public liability interests at the center of the issue, which are now under consideration by Minnesota legislative committees, but are complicated by privacy concerns.

“Do school teachers and employees have the right to know about the history of an aggressive student who in enrolling into their school? There’s been keen interest in that,” French said.

Martin Brady Executive Director Schools Insurance Authority

Martin Brady
Executive Director
Schools Insurance Authority

Martin Brady is less convinced by the Department of Education’s numbers. The executive director of Schools Insurance Authority in Sacramento, Calif., said that in 2014-2015, it received 50 workers’ compensation claims related to student assaults on teachers.

A year later that rose to 75 claims; a 50 percent increase, yes, said Brady, but still a relatively small number with no real change in the severity of incidents.

“Fifty percent of these claims are due to special ed [students] and are typically bites and scratches. The other half is breaking up fights,” he said.

California’s experience appears to be borne out at school insurance pools across the country. Pools from California, Ohio, Idaho and New York cite so few claims that they consider student assaults on teachers a non-issue among their members, according to the Association of Governmental Risk Pools (AGRiP).

Another pool in the Midwest said there has been a modest increase in these sorts of claims, though the trend is far less troubling than other pools might feel.

One pool in the South has seen an increase of about 10 percent in the number of such claims in the last three years, but a decrease in severity — the total cost of claims even amid an increase in frequency has remained flat, AGRiP said.  And the average cost of these injuries is less than the pool’s remaining book of claims, it reported.

Still, Brady sees wisdom in reducing the risk of student assaults on teachers and lowering workers’ compensation and public liability claims. One example is external programming like California’s Community Matters, an innovative program designed to improve the social-emotional climate at Sacramento’s schools.

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Its efforts mirror programs in New Jersey schools that analyze student behavior among “brittle” children, whose medical conditions and home environments put them at a higher risk of acting out or committing violence than other children.

What will not work, Brady stated categorically, are the more militant steps being promoted, often by people and politicians with little direct experience or understanding of the school environment.

“What I’m strongly convinced of after 30 years in this business is that guns and gates and alarms and cameras and metal detectors don’t work. We have to look at the psychosocial component and at cultural changes.”

David Godkin is a freelance magazine writer based in Toronto. He can be reached at [email protected]

2017 RIMS

Resilience in Face of Cyber

New cyber model platforms will help insurers better manage aggregation risk within their books of business.
By: | April 26, 2017 • 3 min read

As insurers become increasingly concerned about the aggregation of cyber risk exposures in their portfolios, new tools are being developed to help them better assess and manage those exposures.

One of those tools, a comprehensive cyber risk modeling application for the insurance and reinsurance markets, was announced on April 24 by AIR Worldwide.

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Last year at RIMS, AIR announced the release of the industry’s first open source deterministic cyber risk scenario, subsequently releasing a series of scenarios throughout the year, and offering the service to insurers on a consulting basis.

Its latest release, ARC– Analytics of Risk from Cyber — continues that work by offering the modeling platform for license to insurance clients for internal use rather than on a consulting basis. ARC is separate from AIR’s Touchstone platform, allowing for more flexibility in the rapidly changing cyber environment.

ARC allows insurers to get a better picture of their exposures across an entire book of business, with the help of a comprehensive industry exposure database that combines data from multiple public and commercial sources.

Scott Stransky, assistant vice president and principal scientist, AIR Worldwide

The recent attacks on Dyn and Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide perfect examples of how the ARC platform can be used to enhance the industry’s resilience, said Scott Stransky, assistant vice president and principal scientist for AIR Worldwide.

Stransky noted that insurers don’t necessarily have visibility into which of their insureds use Dyn, Amazon Web Services, Rackspace, or other common internet services providers.

In the Dyn and AWS events, there was little insured loss because the downtime fell largely just under policy waiting periods.

But,” said Stransky, “it got our clients thinking, well it happened for a few hours – could it happen for longer? And what does that do to us if it does? … This is really where our model can be very helpful.”

The purpose of having this model is to make the world more resilient … that’s really the goal.” Scott Stransky, assistant vice president and principal scientist, AIR Worldwide

AIR has run the Dyn incident through its model, with the parameters of a single day of downtime impacting the Fortune 1000. Then it did the same with the AWS event.

When we run Fortune 1000 for Dyn for one day, we get a half a billion dollars of loss,” said Stransky. “Taking it one step further – we’ve run the same exercise for AWS for one day, through the Fortune 1000 only, and the losses are about $3 billion.”

So once you expand it out to millions of businesses, the losses would be much higher,” he added.

The ARC platform allows insurers to assess cyber exposures including “silent cyber,” across the spectrum of business, be it D&O, E&O, general liability or property. There are 18 scenarios that can be modeled, with the capability to adjust variables broadly for a better handle on events of varying severity and scope.

Looking ahead, AIR is taking a closer look at what Stransky calls “silent silent cyber,” the complex indirect and difficult to assess or insure potential impacts of any given cyber event.

Stransky cites the 2014 hack of the National Weather Service website as an example. For several days after the hack, no satellite weather imagery was available to be fed into weather models.

Imagine there was a hurricane happening during the time there was no weather service imagery,” he said. “[So] the models wouldn’t have been as accurate; people wouldn’t have had as much advance warning; they wouldn’t have evacuated as quickly or boarded up their homes.”

It’s possible that the losses would be significantly higher in such a scenario, but there would be no way to quantify how much of it could be attributed to the cyber attack and how much was strictly the result of the hurricane itself.

It’s very, very indirect,” said Stransky, citing the recent hack of the Dallas tornado sirens as another example. Not only did the situation jam up the 911 system, potentially exacerbating any number of crisis events, but such a false alarm could lead to increased losses in the future.

The next time if there’s a real tornado, people make think, ‘Oh, its just some hack,’ ” he said. “So if there’s a real tornado, who knows what’s going to happen.”

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Modeling for “silent silent cyber” remains elusive. But platforms like ARC are a step in the right direction for ensuring the continued health and strength of the insurance industry in the face of the ever-changing specter of cyber exposure.

Because we have this model, insurers are now able to manage the risks better, to be more resilient against cyber attacks, to really understand their portfolios,” said Stransky. “So when it does happen, they’ll be able to respond, they’ll be able to pay out the claims properly, they’ll be prepared.

The purpose of having this model is to make the world more resilient … that’s really the goal.”

Additional stories from RIMS 2017:

Blockchain Pros and Cons

If barriers to implementation are brought down, blockchain offers potential for financial institutions.

Embrace the Internet of Things

Risk managers can use IoT for data analytics and other risk mitigation needs, but connected devices also offer a multitude of exposures.

Feeling Unprepared to Deal With Risks

Damage to brand and reputation ranked as the top risk concern of risk managers throughout the world.

Reviewing Medical Marijuana Claims

Liberty Mutual appears to be the first carrier to create a workflow process for evaluating medical marijuana expense reimbursement requests.

Cyber Threat Will Get More Difficult

Companies should focus on response, resiliency and recovery when it comes to cyber risks.

RIMS Conference Held in Birthplace of Insurance in US

Carriers continue their vital role of helping insureds mitigate risks and promote safety.

Michelle Kerr is associate editor of Risk & Insurance. She can be reached at [email protected]